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Cloettapreis_2013_Nr_41

31 Glossary Allele: one of two or more forms of a gene, located on a specific posi­ tion on a chromosome. Complex trait: a quantifiable property of an organism influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as interactions between them. Epigenetics: research field that investigates potentially heritable chan- ges in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in DNA sequence. Episodic memory: a memory system that enables conscious recollection of past experiences (e.g., autobiographical episodes, learned material) along with their spatial and temporal contexts. Missing heritability: describes the fact that despite the success of large and dense genome-wide scans in the discovery of trait-associated ge­- netic variants, a large portion of the heritability of complex traits still ­remains unexplained. Phenotype: physical appearance of an organism with respect to a trait (e.g., blue eye color). Polymorphism: in genetics, a difference in DNA sequence among indi- viduals. A common form of a genetic polymorphism is a single nucleo- tide polymorphism (SNP), which occurs when a nucleotide – A, T, C, or G – differs between individuals. The human genome contains mil­- lions of SNPs. Statistical epistasis: a concept defined about a century ago and dealing with the statistical deviation from additive interaction effects between two or more genetic polymorphisms. Acknowledgements We are deeply thankful to the funding institutions (Swiss National ­Science Foundation, European Union, European Science Foundation) for generous support. This manuscript is based on our recent review paper published in the Trends in Cognitive Sciences66 .

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