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30 ory processes at the level of neural circuits, it is important to note that imaging genetic studies are also correlational in nature and do not allow causal interpretations. Methods, which allow researchers to investigate the causal role of a certain gene or genetic variant include studies in ge- netically modified animals and studies aiming at intervening at the level of gene products. Such studies are especially important to gain more knowledge about genes identified in GWAS, for which the function is not known or poorly understood (Figure 2). This crosstalk between genetic association and investigation of causality will ultimately pave the way towards the identification of biologically important – and druggable – genes and molecular pathways related to human episodic memory.