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Cloettapreis_2012_Nr_40

23 poro-parietal cortex in bodily self-consciousness as informed by multi- sensory and vestibular signals. Self-identification depends on somatosen- sory and visual signals and involves bimodal visuo-tactile neurons, whereas self-location and the first-person perspective depend on the in- tegration of these bodily signals with vestibular cues, in trimodal visuo- tactile-vestibular neurons. These differences between self-identification versus self-location and first-person perspective are corroborated by neu- roimaging and neurological data, showing that self-identification recruits primarily bilateral premotor and parietal regions, whereas self-location and the first-person perspective recruit posterior parietal-TPJ regions with a right hemispheric predominance. These recent data extend other prominent proposals concerning the neu- ral basis of bodily self-consciousness that have highlighted brain pro­ cesses related to internal states of the body, such as interoceptive and homeostatic systems (e.g. the heartbeat) as important signals, and that have highlighted the contribution of either the insula37 or the posterior medial parietal cortex38,39 . Ongoing research explores the interactions be- tween exteroceptive bodily signals (which the present review focused on) and interoceptive and sensorimotor signals5,40 . Recent results confirm that both types of bodily signals (extero- and interoceptive signals) are of rel- evance for self-consciousness and should despite their neuroanatomical differences be considered as a single system. These more recent findings also highlight the role of emotional mechanisms related to self-identifi- cation41 . Cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists have studied many different aspects of the self-related for example to language and memory (i.e.2,4,5,42-51 ). Along this line, mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness overlap with self-related processes such as perceptual and imagined viewpoint chang- es51 , theory-of-mind, mentalizing52 , empathy, and egocentric perspective taking. It will also be an exciting endeavour to better understand how the reviewed brain mechanisms on bodily self-consciousness are linked to language (i.e.53,54 ) and to memory and future prediction39 (see also55,56 ), as the latter functions have been prominently linked to so-called higher- order forms of self-consciousness, such as «narrative» and «extended» self-consciousness and personhood.

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