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19 to induce changes in self-location, self-identification and first-person per- spective in healthy subjects24-26 . In most such research paradigms, a tac- tile stroking stimulus is repeatedly applied to the back or chest of a par- ticipant who is being filmed and simultaneously views (through a head-mounted display [HMD]) the stroking of a human body in a real-time film or virtual-reality animation. The video camera was placed 2 m be- hind the person, filming the participant’s back from behind (Figure 2). Thus, participants viewed a video image of their body (the «virtual body») from an «outside», third-person perspective26 while an experimenter stroked their back with a stick. The stroking was thus felt by the partici- pants on their back and also seen on the back of the virtual body. The HMD displayed the stroking of the virtual body either in real time or not (using an online video-delay or offline pre-recorded data), generating synchronous and asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation, respectively. Figure 2: Video Ergo Sum Depiction of the experimental setup using video and visuo-tactile mismatch to induce chan- ges in self-identification, self-location and first-person perspective. Under these conditions subjects self-identified with the seen virtual body (hence:Video ergo sum) and such illusory self-identification with the vir- tual body was stronger during synchronous than during asynchronous stroking conditions26 (for a similar approach see24 ). Self-location was measured by passively displacing the body of the blindfolded subject af-